This article has been updated.
To date, there are about 17,000 Tesla charging stations and more than 130,000 public charging stations across the US. Tesla owners are often effusive about its app and the effectiveness and speed of NACS (North American Charging Standard), while those using CCS (Combined Charging System) complain of broken stations and apps that are confusing and unintuitive. With behemoth automakers like Ford and GM switching over to Tesla’s NACS, CCS station owners will need to improve reliability and consider adding Tesla adapters too or face a fade into oblivion.
Tesla owners may not be happy about the shift, as they’ve enjoyed access to their own fiefdom of chargers for years. Now they’ll have to make room for non-Tesla EVs and could face more wait time. Overall, it looks like a competitive fight that will benefit the consumer.
“My guess is that what we will see is by 2027, there will probably be no more new EVs built for North America with CCS ports,” Sam Abuelsamid, an analyst at Guidehouse Insights, told Business Insider.
One company that’s bucking the wave is Volkswagen, which says it’s committed to the CCS standard. That’s no wonder: CCS provider Electrify America was partially founded with $2 billion from the VW emissions “Dieselgate” settlement. The charging network has 840 stations and plans to double its number of chargers by 2026. Others, like Toyota, have not yet commented on the possibility.
Here’s the rundown of companies making the switch and those strongly considering it.
Automakers already committed to NACS going forward
In May, Ford CEO Jim Farley surprised the market by unveiling an agreement with Tesla to allow current Ford EV owners to use Tesla Superchargers across the US and Canada starting early next year. And Ford’s next-generation of EVs will include Tesla’s charging plug, eliminating the need for an adapter.
General Motors (Chevrolet, Buick, GMC, Cadillac)
Within a couple of weeks of Ford’s announcement, General Motors followed suit. Access to the Tesla network will begin in early 2024 for GM customers using an adapter, and GM will start building EVs with a NACS inlet port starting in 2025. After that, GM says it will make CCS adapters available for drivers of NACS-enabled vehicles. The company is also planning to integrate the Tesla Supercharger Network into its vehicle and mobile apps for payment and service, as well.
In June, Rivian announced it had signed an agreement with Tesla for access to Tesla’s Supercharger network across the US and Canada. Sometime next year (as early as spring 2024, Rivian says), the electric automaker will make NACS adapters available for its R1T pickup and R1S SUV. And next-generation Rivian vehicles (2025 and later) will include a NACS charge port as standard.
Volvo intends to manufacture only electric cars by 2030. With that goal in mind, Volvo says its US-market vehicles will be equipped with NACS charging ports starting from 2025. The Swedish automaker made a splash with its recent debut of the affordable EX30 EV, and it also offers the all-electric models XC40, EX90, and C40 Recharge.
On July 19, Nissan announced that it was joining the NACS standard too, and like other automakers, it will manufacture EVs with a NACS port in 2025. In 2024, it will offer an adapter for its Ariya EV; that vehicle currently uses CCS.
Companies actively considering moving to NACS
Hyundai president Jaehoon Chang told investors in June that the company would consider shifting to Tesla’s standard, but it’s still weighing its options. Kia and Hyundai both use the 800-volt battery architecture for fast charging; a Kia EV6 or Hyundai Ioniq 6, for example, can replenish up to 80 percent of its range in less than 20 minutes on a CCS DC fast charger. Tesla’s Superchargers, however, employ a 400-volt architecture and can’t charge Hyundai and Kia vehicles as effectively.
Stellantis (Jeep, Chrysler, Alfa Romeo, Ram, Maserati, Dodge, Renault, Fiat, and more)
According to The Washington Post, Stellantis is pulling together a network of public electric vehicle chargers (including the Tesla standard) in the US, Canada and Europe. At this juncture, it remains to be seen if Stellantis will move ahead with a plan for its own network or will join together with the others on NACS.
While the conglomerate Stellantis doesn’t currently sell any all-electric vehicles, it does sell three plug-in gas-electric hybrids: the Dodge Hornet, Alfa Romeo Tonale, and Chrysler Pacifica. An electric commercial van is in the works this year, as well as an all-electric Ram Rev pickup.
This article has been updated with the news that Nissan will join the NACS standard, too.